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In the UK, the Factory Act of gave working men half a day off, making the opportunity to take part in sport more widely available.

Working class sportsmen found it hard to play top level sport due to the need to turn up to work. On occasion, cash prizes, particularly in individual competitions, could make up the difference; [2] some competitors also wagered on the outcomes of their matches.

As professional teams developed, some clubs were willing to make "broken time" payments to players, i. Proponents of the amateur ideal deplored the influence of money and the effect it has on sports.

It was claimed that it is in the interest of the professional to receive the highest amount of pay possible per unit of performance, not to perform to the highest standard possible where this does not bring additional benefit.

The middle and upper-class men who dominated the sporting establishment not only had a theoretical preference for amateurism, they also had a self-interest in blocking the professionalization of sport, which threatened to make it feasible for the working classes to compete against themselves with success.

Working class sportsmen didn't see why they shouldn't be paid to play. Hence there were competing interests between those who wished sport to be open to all and those who feared that professionalism would destroy the 'Corinthian spirit'.

This conflict played out over the course of more than one hundred years. Some sports dealt with it relatively easily, such as golf , which decided in the late 19th century to tolerate competition between amateurs and professionals, while others were traumatized by the dilemma, and took generations to fully come to terms with professionalism even to a result of causing a breakdown in the sport as in the case of rugby union and rugby league in Corinthian has come to describe one of the most virtuous of amateur athletes—those for whom fairness and honor in competition is valued above victory or gain.

Dixon Kemp wrote in A Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing published in , "The term Corinthian half a century ago was commonly applied to the aristocratic patrons of sports, some of which, such as pugilism , are not now the fashion.

The "Corinthian ideal" of the gentleman amateur developed alongside muscular Christianity in late Victorian Britain, and has been analysed as a historical social phenomenon since the later 20th century.

In the United States, "Corinthian" came to be applied in particular to amateur yachtsman, and remains current as such and in the name of many yacht clubs ; including Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club founded , added "Corinthian" to name in [9] and Yale Corinthian Yacht Club likewise and By the early 21st century the Olympic Games and all the major team sports accepted professional competitors.

However, there are still some sports which maintain a distinction between amateur and professional status with separate competitive leagues.

The most prominent of these are golf and boxing. In particular, only amateur boxers could compete at the Olympics up to Problems can arise for amateur sportsmen when sponsors offer to help with an amateur's playing expenses in the hope of striking lucrative endorsement deals with them in case they become professionals at a later date.

This practice, dubbed " shamateurism ", was present as early as in the 19th century. The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage.

The Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis.

All North American university sports are conducted by amateurs. Even the very most commercialized college sports, such as NCAA football and basketball , do not financially compensate competitors, although coaches and trainers generally are paid.

College football coaches in Texas and other states are often the highest paid state employees, with some drawing salaries of over five million US dollars annually.

Athletic scholarship programs, unlike academic scholarship programs, cannot cover more than the cost of food, housing, tuition, and other university-related expenses.

In order to ensure that the rules are not circumvented, stringent rules restrict gift-giving during the recruitment process as well as during and even after a collegiate athlete's career; college athletes also cannot endorse products, which some [ who?

Some [ who? College athletes spend a great deal of time "working" for the university, and earn nothing from it at the time aside from scholarships sometimes worth tens of thousands of dollars; basketball and football coaches, meanwhile, earn salaries that can compare with those of professional teams' coaches.

Supporters of the system say that college athletes can always make use of the education they earn as students if their athletic career doesn't pan out, and that allowing universities to pay college athletes would rapidly lead to deterioration of the already-marginal academic focus of college athletics programs.

They also point out that athletic scholarships allow many young men and women who would otherwise be unable to afford to go to college, or would not be accepted, to get a quality education.

Also, most sports other than football and men's basketball do not generate significant revenue for any school and such teams are often essentially funded by football, basketball, and donations , so it may not be possible to pay athletes in all sports.

Allowing pay in some sports but not others could result in the violation of U. Through most of the 20th century the Olympics allowed only amateur athletes to participate and this amateur code was strictly enforced - Jim Thorpe was stripped of track and field medals for having taken expense money for playing baseball in Later on, the nations of the Communist bloc entered teams of Olympians who were all nominally students , soldiers , or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis.

Near the end of the s, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association CAHA felt their amateur players could no longer be competitive against the Soviet team's full-time athletes and the other constantly improving European teams.

Before the Winter Olympics, a dispute formed over what made a player a professional. The IOC had adopted a rule that made any player who had signed an NHL contract but played less than ten games in the league eligible.

However, the United States Olympic Committee maintained that any player contracted with an NHL team was a professional and therefore not eligible to play.

Players who had played in other professional leagues—such as the World Hockey Association —were allowed to play. After the retirement of IOC President Avery Brundage , the Olympic amateurism rules were steadily relaxed, amounting only to technicalities and lip service, until being completely abandoned in the s In the United States , the Amateur Sports Act of prohibits national governing bodies from having more stringent standards of amateur status than required by international governing bodies of respective sports.

The act caused the breakup of the Amateur Athletic Union as a wholesale sports governing body at the Olympic level. Olympic regulations regarding amateur status of athletes were eventually abandoned in the s with the exception of wrestling, where the amateur fight rules are used due to the fact that professional wrestling is largely staged with pre-determined outcomes.

Starting from the Summer Olympics , professionals were allowed to compete in boxing, though amateur fight rules are still used for the tournament.

English first-class cricket distinguished between amateur and professional cricketers until Teams below Test cricket level in England were normally, except in emergencies such as injuries, captained by amateurs.

Notwithstanding this, sometimes there were ways found to give high performing "amateurs", for example W.

Grace , financial and other compensation such as employment. On English overseas tours, some of which in the 19th century were arranged and led by professional cricketer-promoters such as James Lillywhite , Alfred Shaw and Arthur Shrewsbury , a more pragmatic approach generally prevailed.

In England the division was reflected in, and for a long time reinforced by, the series of Gentlemen v Players matches between amateurs and professionals.

Few cricketers changed their status, but there were some notable exceptions such as Wally Hammond who became or was allowed to become an amateur in so that he could captain England.

Hammond was an example of "shamateurism", in that he was offered a "job" which paid more than he earned as a professional cricketer to act as a company's representative and play cricket.

Professionals were often expected to address amateurs, at least to their faces, as "Mister" or "Sir" whereas the amateurs often referred to professionals by their surnames.

Newspaper reports often prefaced amateurs' names with "Mr" while professionals were referred to by surname, or sometimes surname and initials.

At some grounds amateurs and professionals had separate dressing rooms and entered the playing arena through separate gates.

An anecdote narrated by Fred Root epitomises the difference between amateurs and professionals: In a match against Glamorgan , the batsmen, Arnold Dyson and Eddie Bates , had collided mid-pitch, and the ball was returned to Root, the bowler.

Root didn't break the stumps as both batsmen seemed injured. An amateur repeatedly shouted "Break the wicket, Fred, break the wicket!

After the Second World War the division was increasingly questioned. When Len Hutton was appointed as English national cricket captain in he remained a professional.

In the division was removed, and all cricket players became known as "cricketers". In Australia the amateur-professional division was rarely noticed in the years before World Series Cricket , as many top level players expected to receive something for their efforts on the field: before World War 1 profit-sharing of tour proceeds was common.

Australian cricketers touring England were considered amateurs and given the title "Mr" in newspaper reports. Before the Partition of India some professionalism developed, but talented cricketers were often employed by wealthy princely or corporate patrons and thus retained a notional amateur status.

Boot money has been a phenomenon in amateur sport for centuries. The Football Association prohibited paying players until , and this is referred to as the "legalisation" of professionalism because it was an amendment of the "Laws of the Game".

However, a maximum salary cap of twelve pounds a week for a player with outside employment and fifteen pounds a week for a player with no outside employment lingered until the s even as transfer fees reached over a hundred thousand pounds; again, "boot money" was seen as a way of topping up pay.

Today the most prominent English football clubs that are not professional are semi-professional paying part-time players more than the old maximum for top professionals; this includes all the major existing women's clubs , in which full professionalism has not taken root yet and the most prominent true amateur men's club is probably Queen's Park , the oldest football club in Scotland, founded in and with a home ground Hampden Park which is one of UEFA's five-star stadia.

They have also won the Scottish Cup more times than any club outside the Old Firm. Queen's Park abandoned amateur status in Around the turn of the 20th century, much of sailing was professionals paid by interested idle rich.

Today, sailing, especially dinghy sailing, is an example of a sport which is still largely populated by amateurs. For example, in the recent [ when?

In large keelboat racing, such as the Volvo Around the World Race and the America's Cup, this amateur spirit has given way in recent years to large corporate sponsorships and paid crews.

Like other Olympic sports, figure skating used to have very strict amateur status rules. Over the years, these rules were relaxed to allow competitive skaters to receive token payments for performances in exhibitions amid persistent rumors that they were receiving more money "under the table" , then to accept money for professional activities such as endorsements provided that the payments were made to trust funds rather than to the skaters themselves.

In , trust funds were abolished, and the International Skating Union voted both to remove most restrictions on amateurism, and to allow skaters who had previously lost their amateur status to apply for reinstatement of their eligibility.

However, when all of these skaters promptly returned to the pro circuit again, the ISU decided the reinstatement policy was a failure and it was discontinued in Prize money at ISU competitions was introduced in , paid by the sale of the television rights to those events.

In addition to prize money, Olympic-eligible skaters may also earn money through appearance fees at shows and competitions, endorsements, movie and television contracts, coaching, and other "professional" activities, provided that their activities are approved by their national federations.

The only activity that is strictly forbidden by the ISU is participating in unsanctioned "pro" competitions, which the ISU uses to maintain their monopoly status as the governing body in the sport.

Many people in the skating world still use "turning pro" as jargon to mean retiring from competitive skating, even though most top competitive skaters are already full-time professionals, and many skaters who retire from competition to concentrate on show skating or coaching do not actually lose their competition eligibility in the process.

Rugby has provided one of the most visible and lasting examples of the tension between amateurism and professionalism during the development of nationally organised sports in Britain in the lateth century.

Rugby football, despite its origins in the privileged English public schools , was a popular game throughout England by around , including in the large working-class areas of the industrial north.

However, as the then-amateur sport became increasingly popular and competitive, attracting large paying crowds, teams in such areas found it difficult to attract and retain good players.

This was because physically fit local men needed to both work to earn a wage - limiting the time that they could devote to unpaid sport - and to avoid injuries that might prevent them working in the future.

Certain teams faced with these circumstances wanted to pay so-called 'broken time' money to their players to compensate them for missing paid work due to their playing commitments, but this contravened the amateur policy of the Rugby Football Union RFU.

Following a lengthy dispute on this point during the early s, representatives of more than 20 prominent northern rugby clubs met in Huddersfield in August to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU , a breakaway administrative body which would permit payments to be made to players.

The NRFU initially adopted established RFU rules for the game itself, but soon introduced a number of changes, most obviously a switch from 15 to 13 players per side.

It became the Rugby Football League in , by which time the key differences in the two codes were well established, with the a-side variant becoming known as rugby league.

A similar interpretation was applied to all players who played either for or against such clubs, whether or not they themselves received any compensation.

Such players were effectively barred sine die from any involvement in organised rugby union. These comprehensive and enduring sanctions, combined with the very localised nature of most rugby competition, meant that most northern clubs had little practical alternative but to affiliate with the NRFU in the first few years of its existence.

Rugby football in Britain therefore became subject to a de facto schism along regional - and to some extent class - lines, reflecting the historical origins of the split.

Rugby league - in which professionalism was permitted - was predominant in northern England, particularly in industrial areas, and was viewed as a working class game.

Rugby union - which remained amateur - was predominant in the rest of England, as well as in Wales and Scotland. Rugby union also had a more affluent reputation, although there are areas - notably in South Wales and in certain English cities such as Gloucester - with a strong working-class rugby union tradition.

Discrimination against rugby league players could verge on the petty - former Welsh international Fred Perrett was once excluded in lists of players who died in the First World War due to his 'defection' to the league code.

The Scottish Rugby Union was a particular bastion of amateurism and extreme care was taken to avoid the 'taint' of professionalism: a player rejoining the national team after the end of the Second World War applied to be issued with a new shirt and was reminded that he had been supplied with a shirt prior to the outbreak of hostilities.

In Wales the position was more equivocal with clubs attempting to stem the tide of players going north with boot money , a reference to the practice of putting cash payments into player's footwear whilst they were cleaning up after a game.

Sometimes payments were substantial. Barry John was once asked why he hadn't turned professional and responded, "I couldn't afford to. Rugby union was declared "open" in August - almost exactly years after the original split occurred - meaning that professionalism has been permitted in both rugby codes since that date.

However, while the professional-amateur divide remained in force, there was originally very limited crossover between the two codes, the most obvious occasions being when top-class rugby union players 'switched codes' to rugby league in order to play professionally.

Welsh international Jonathan Davies was a high-profile example of this switch. Since professionalism has been allowed in rugby union the switches have started to come the opposite way.

Union has swiftly grown to embrace the professional game with many league players joining union to take a slice of the larger amounts of money available in the sport.

Nowadays, while rugby union no longer makes the professional-amateur distinction, the professional-amateur split still exists within rugby league with the British Amateur Rugby League Association BARLA strictly amateur, though it allows some ex-professionals to play provided they are no longer under contract.

The most recent club to get a ban for fielding a contracted professional was Brighouse Rangers who were expelled from the National Conference League during — season, and the player handed a sine die ban though in part for gouging [32] , although the club itself has since been admitted to the Pennine League.

Also, some rugby unions have amateur rules, most notably the Argentine Rugby Union , where all member clubs are amateur. The Campeonato Argentino , the national championship for provincial teams, does not include players contracted to the country's Super Rugby side, the Jaguares.

Alternative sports, using the flying disc, began in the mid-sixties. As numbers of young people became alienated from social norms, they resisted and looked for alternative recreational activities, including that of throwing a Frisbee.

Disc sports such as freestyle , double disc court , guts , disc ultimate and disc golf became this sports first events. Disc ultimate is a team sport played with a flying disc.

The object of the game is to score points by passing the disc to members of your own team, on a rectangular field, yards m by 40 yards 37m , until you have successfully completed a pass to a team member in the opposing team's end zone.

There are currently over five million people that play some form of organized ultimate in the US. Bobby Jones won the Grand Slam in , winning the U.

Amateur, U. Open , British Amateur , and British Open. The U. Amateur results lead to exemptions into other tournaments. In all cases, the exemption holds only if the golfer retains their amateur status.

All the exemptions listed below pertain to only the winner of the U. Amateur, unless otherwise stated. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States Golf Association.

February 11, Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved February 11, Retrieved April 4, Retrieved July 20, Men's major golf championships.

Open The Open Championship. British Amateur U. Most wins Chronological Grand Slam. Golf Channel NBC. Women's Open —, U.

Senior Open —, U. Senior Women's Open Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Use mdy dates from September Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.

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